The primary aim of this report is to share survey and surveillance data on drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB). The data presented here are supplied largely by the programme managers who have led the work on surveys, but also by heads of reference laboratories and by principal investigators who may have been hired to assist the national TB programmes with the study. We thank all of them, and their staff, for their contributions. The World Health Organization/International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (WHO/UNION) Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance is carried out with the financial backing of United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and Eli Lilly and Company as part of the Lilly multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB Partnership. Drug resistance surveys were supported financially by the Dutch Government, the Global Fund, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW Entwicklungsbank), national TB programmes and USAID). The Supranational Reference Laboratory Network provided the external quality assurance, as well as technical support to many of the countries reporting. Technical support for surveys was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), JICA, the Royal Netherlands Tuberculosis Association (KNCV), and WHO. Data for the WHO European Region were collected and validated jointly with EuroTB (Paris) — a European TB surveillance network funded by the European Commission.
This document was prepared for the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Malaria Programme by Amy Barrette and Pascal Ringwald and was reviewed by Rick Fairhurst (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) Arjen Dondorp (Mahidol–Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit); Patrick ; Kachur, John MacArthur, Laurence Slutsker (Malaria Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention); Christopher Plowe (University of Maryland); Christopher Dye, Kamini Mendis, Robert Newman, Peter Olumese, Jackson Sillah and Mariam Warsame (WHO). The Global Malaria Programme wishes to thank the ministries of health, nongovernmental organizations, pharmaceutical companies, public private partnerships, research institutes, subregional networks and WHO regional offices that kindly shared their data. Financial support for the preparation of this document and the WHO global database on antimalarial drug efficacy was provided by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the United States Agency for International Development
To persons living with HIV/AIDS past, present, and future who provide the knowledge, to researchers who utilize the knowledge, to health care workers who apply the knowledge, and to public officials who do their best to promote the health of their citizens with the knowledge of the biology, pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of HIV/AIDS.
The Stop TB Department of the World Health Organization gratefully acknowledges the members of the Guidelines Group (listed in Annex 6), including Jeremiah Muhwa Chakaya, the Chairperson. Richard Menzies (McGill University, Montreal, Canada), Karen Steingart and Phillip Hopewell (University of California, San Francisco, USA) and Andrew Nunn and Patrick Phillips (British Medical Research Council) led the teams that compiled, synthesized and evaluated the evidence underlying each recommendation. Suzanne Hill and Holger Schünemann facilitated the meeting of the Guidelines Group. Useful feedback was obtained from the External Review Group (also listed in Annex 6). Additional feedback and support were provided by the Guidelines Review Committee (Chair, Suzanne Hill; Secretariat, Faith McLellan). Publication of the guidelines was supported in part by a financial contribution from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The document was prepared by Sarah Royce and Malgorzata Grzemska. Dorris Ortega provided secretarial support.
These guidelines for the treatment of persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were updated by CDC after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on April 18–30, 2009. The information in this report updates the 2006 Guidelines for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (MMWR 2006;55[No. RR–11]). Included in these updated guidelines is new information regarding 1) the expanded diagnostic evaluation for cervicitis and trichomoniasis; 2) new treatment recommendations for bacterial vaginosis and genital warts; 3) the clinical efficacy of azithromycin for chlamydial infections in pregnancy; 4) the role of Mycoplasma genitalium and trichomoniasis in urethritis/cervicitis and treatment-related implications; 5) lymphogranuloma venereum proctocolitis among men who have sex with men; 6) the criteria for spinal fluid examination to evaluate for neurosyphilis; 7) the emergence of azithromycin-resistant Treponema pallidum; 8) the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 9) the sexual transmission of hepatitis C; 10) diagnostic evaluation after sexual assault; and 11) STD prevention approaches.
Derive the maximum diagnostic information from interviewing and examining patients with Textbook of Physical Diagnosis. Employing a compassionate, humanistic approach, Dr. Swartz explores how cultural differences can influence communication, diet, family relationships, and health practices and beliefs, and demonstrates that your interpersonal awareness is just as essential in physical diagnosis as your level of technical skill. This medical reference book features numerous high-quality color images, an easy-to-use design, and detailed descriptions of exam techniques, making it an essential guide for physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants.
Symptom to Diagnosis teaches you an evidence-based, step-by-step process for evaluating, diagnosing, and treating patients based on their clinical complaints. By applying this process, you will be able to recognize specific diseases and prescribe the most effective therapy. Each chapter addresses one common complaint and begins with a case and guidance on how to organize the differential diagnosis. As the case progresses, clinical reasoning is explained in detail. The differential diagnosis for that particular case is summarized in tables that highlight the clinical clues and important tests for the leading diagnostic hypothesis and alternative diagnostic hypotheses. As the chapter progresses, the pertinent diseases are reviewed. Just as in real life, the case unfolds in a stepwise fashion as tests are performed and diagnoses are confirmed or refuted. The third edition is enhanced by the addition of five new chapters–Bleeding Disorders, Dysuria, Hematuria, Hypotension, and Sore Throat–as well as a greater emphasis on how to master the process of working from patient level data (signs, symptoms, and laboratory tests). All chapters incorporate the latest research resulting in new and refined approaches to common symptoms encountered in clinical medicine.